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Acetonitrile
time:2019-07-22 14:59:02click:876

Acetonitrile, also known as methyl cyanide, colorless liquid, easy to volatilize, similar to ether special odor, has excellent solvent performance, can dissolve a variety of organic, inorganic and gaseous substances. Toxic to some extent, with water and alcohol unlimited solubility. Acetonitrile is an important organic intermediate which can react with typical nitriles and is used to prepare many typical nitrogenous compounds. Acetonitrile can be used as A solvent for the synthesis of vitamin A, cortisone, carbamide drugs and their intermediates, and as an active solvent for the manufacture of vitamin B1 and amino acids. Can replace chlorinated solvent. It is used in vinyl coatings, fatty acid extractors, alcohol denatoring agents, butadiene extractors and solvents for acrylonitrile synthetic fibers.

Chinese name acetonitrile

Also known as methyl cyanide

The molecular weight of 41.05

EINECS login number 200-835-2

Boiling point 81.6 ℃

Density 0.79 (water =1)

Flash point 12.8℃ (CC); 6 ℃ (OC)

Dangerous symbols are flammable and harmful

Dangerous goods transport number UN 1648 3/PG 2

English name Acetonitrile

Chemical formula C2H3N

CAS login number is 75-05-8

Melting point - 45 ℃

Water soluble and water miscible, soluble in ethanol, ether and other organic solvents.

The appearance is colorless liquid with pungent odor.

The main application is as a solvent

Risk profile R11, R36, r20/21/22, r23/24/25

Pharmaceutical industrial use

acetonitrile

A solvent used in the petroleum industry to remove tar, phenols, and other substances from petroleum hydrocarbons. It is used in the oil industry as a solvent for extracting fatty acids from vegetable oils and as a reaction medium for recrystallization of steroidal drugs. Binary azeotropic mixtures of acetonitrile and water are often used when polar solvents with high dielectric constants are needed: 84% acetonitrile, boiling at 76℃. Acetonitrile is medicine (vitamin B1), the intermediate of flavor, is the raw material for the manufacture of triazine nitrogen fertilizer synergist. It is also used as a denaturant of alcohol. In addition, it can also be used to synthesize ethylamine, acetic acid, etc., and has many USES in fabric dyeing and lighting industry.

Laboratory use

Acetonitrile is a common polar aprotic solvent. In inorganic chemistry, acetonitrile is widely used as a ligand, and its abbreviation is MeCN. For example, acetonitrile complex PdCl2(MeCN)2 can be prepared by heating polypalladium chloride suspension in acetonitrile.

Acetonitrile is a popular cyclic voltammetry solvent because of its high dielectric constant. Acetonitrile is also a dicarbonic material for organic synthesis. It reacts with cyanogen chloride to get malonitrile.

Acetonitrile is also used as a mobile phase separator in column chromatography and more modern high performance liquid chromatography.

In the field of nuclear medicine, acetonitrile is used to synthesize positron drugs such as fluorodeoxyglucose. In the process of FDG synthesis, the evaporation of acetonitrile can remove water from the reaction system. The content of acetonitrile in the reaction system plays an important role in the synthesis efficiency and drug quality of FDG. At the same time, acetonitrile is also used as solvent and substrate of reaction system. In addition, acetonitrile: water mixture (e.g., 85% v/v) is used as the flow for TLC analysis during routine quality inspection of FDG


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